Harvard System

Welcome to our Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing.

The University Library has released a new edition of the Guide to Referencing in the Harvard Style. This is written by Library staff at Anglia Ruskin to support students' information skills here, but the Guide is frequently cited as a valuable source on the Internet.

The new edition includes some changes, in particular the recommendations for citing multiple authors. In the full reference, at the end of a piece of work, all the authors should be included. While for intext citations, where there are four or more authors, only the first should be quoted followed by et al., but upto three authors can be included in the intext reference, following guidance offered by the BS ISO 690:2012.

We have also produced a Harvard Quick Guide (.pdf) which covers the basics of Harvard Referencing. Student services have a guide with examples of how to cite in text (.pdf). If you are using this guide in conjunction with Refworks select the output style "Anglia Ruskin Harvard Style v5". You can test your knowledge of referencing by taking our Understanding Referencing Quiz.

Although written by Library staff at Anglia Ruskin to support students' information skills here, the Guide is frequently cited as a valuable source on the Internet. If you wish to re-use the Guide you may do so under the terms of the Creative Commons licence as long as your use is restricted to non-commercial purposes and the source is acknowledged. If you wish to re-use the Guide please contact us first. Sections can be opened and printed, or you may download a pdf version.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

General introduction by the compilers

This is the fifth edition of the guide compiled by the University Library.

The main changes that have been made to this edition are:-
  • Additional examples have been added for certain document types
  • Double quotation marks are recommended to assist students when they run their work through Turnitin
  • Some guidance has been provided for music resources
The sources quoted in this guide have been compiled and shown in red for the purposes of illustration only. Any similarity with published work is coincidental. In-text referencing examples are included for additional help where appropriate.

This guide has been compiled with reference to a number of British Standards. The most recent being BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation - guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. The layout has been informed by Harvard style conventions currently being followed in UK Universities.

What is referencing

Why do I need to provide references in my work?

To show anyone who reads your work that you understand the topic and can demonstrate your own thoughts on this.

To demonstrate that you have read widely and deeply.

To enable the reader to locate where you obtained each quote or idea.

By providing the original source you are acknowledging that you have read the work and recognise the original author(s) ideas.

How do I provide references in my work?

The rest of this guide will provide detailed information on how to provide references in a variety of different circumstances. The most important thing to remember is to be consistent in the way you record your references.

Academic Honesty

If you understand the reasons for referencing it is evident why you should not pass off work of others as your own. Failing to reference appropriately could result in your assessors thinking you are guilty of plagiarism - the act of using somebody else's work or ideas as your own. You will find information relating to academic honesty in various student documentation including module guides and student handbooks.

The university has recently introduced Turnitin to assist you in identifying where you have used original material so that you can ensure it is correctly referenced in your submission.
For more information, go to: http://web.anglia.ac.uk/anet/students/turnitin

During the course of writing an essay, report or other assignment it is usual to support arguments by referring to, or citing, information produced by other authors. This information could be presented in journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, material over the internet etc. When you cite someone's work in the text of your essay (an in-text citation), you also need to create a full reference for it at the end of your work. This gives the full details for the information source so that it can be traced by anyone who reads your work.

The Harvard System

There are many systems for the citation of references: most Faculties at Anglia Ruskin University expect students to use the Harvard style of referencing which is a name and date system.

This is supported by the University policy relating to academic honesty. Student handbooks for both undergraduate and post graduate students refer to the University Library Harvard Guide for guidance. Students should however check the relevant guidelines for their subject within the Faculty.
For more information see the University Library website at:
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/referencing.htm

In the Harvard system, the author's surname and year of publication are cited in the text of your work. The full details of the book are included in a reference list at the end of the assignment.

In-text citation

"An effective structure is important" (Redman, 2006, p.22)


Reference list

Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

Reference list or Bibliography

The reference list should include details for everything that you cite in your assignment. It should be in alphabetical order by author with all the different types of material in one sequence (See Section 3.1 for further details).

Some Departments may ask you to produce a Bibliography. This is a list of relevant items that you have used to help you prepare for the assignment but which are not necessarily cited in your text e.g. general background reading to familiarise yourself with the topic.

A reference list is always required when you cite other people's work within your assignment.

The terms reference list and bibliography are sometimes used interchangeably. Make sure that you know what is required from you before you complete your assignment.

An annotated bibliography includes the full reference to sources with the addition of notes, which summarise and evaluate the source and will be of variable length, depending on the assessment this may be an independent project or part of a larger research project.

Word Counts

Details of what is excluded from the word count for submissions can be found in the Academic Regulations, Section 6 Assessment. These can be accessed on the University website under the section for the Academic Office.

CITING REFERENCES IN-TEXT

General Introduction

Any in-text reference should include the authorship and the year of the work. Depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that is being written, references to sources may be cited in the text as described below:

Additional support on how to introduce such references is available from Student Support in their guide.

Author's name cited in the text

When making reference to an author's work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work:

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

Where you are mentioning a particular part of the work, and making direct reference to this, a page reference should be included:

Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".

Author's name not cited directly in the text

If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text then both the author's name and publication year are placed at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence in brackets:

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).

More than one author cited in the text

Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, they are both cited:

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown ...

Two or three authors for a work

When there are two or three authors for a work, they should be noted in the text

Directly using an and

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found...


Or indirectly

Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that...


Other examples using two or three authors........

During the mid nineties research undertaken in Luton (Slater and Jones, 1996) showed that...


Further research (Green, Harris and Dunne, 1969) showed


When there are two or three authors for a work they should all be listed (in the order in which their names appear in the original publication), with the name listed last preceded by an and.

Four or more authors for a work

Where there are several authors (four or more), only the first author should be used, followed by et al. meaning and others:

Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority ...

or indirectly:

Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of ...

More than one author not cited directly in the text

List these at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence, putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication and separated by a semi-colon and within brackets.

Where several publications from a number of authors are referred to, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments......

Recent research (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008) shows that

Several works by one author in different years

If more than one publication from an author illustrates the same point and the works are published in different years, then the references should be cited in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):

as suggested by Patel (1992; 1994) who found that...

or indirectly:

research in the nineties (Patel, 1992; 1994) found that...

Several works by one author in the same year

If you are quoting several works published by the same author in the same year, they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item:

Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found that...but later research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that ...

If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion, or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be referred to by using lower case letters (as above):

Bloggs (1993a; 1993b) has stated on more than one occasion that ...

Chapter authors in edited works

References to the work of an author that appears as a chapter, or part of a larger work, that is edited by someone else, should be cited within your text using the name of the contributory author not the editor of the whole work.

In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states ...

In the reference list at the end of your document, you should include details of both the chapter author and the editor of the entire work

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2

Corporate authors

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author then it is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work. This applies to publications by associations, companies, government departments etc. such as Department of the Environment or Royal College of Nursing.

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, e.g. RCN, in your text, providing that the full name is given at the first citing with the abbreviation in brackets:

1st citation:

... following major pioneering research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown that ...

2nd citation:

More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines for...


Note that the full name is the preferred format in the reference list. These should provide the full name...

Royal College of Nursing, 2006. Children in the Community. London: RCN.


Royal College of Nursing, 2007. Administering intravenous therapy to children in the community setting: Guidance for nursing staff. London: RCN.


Some reports are written by specially convened groups or committees and can be cited by the name of the committee:

Committee on Nursing (1972)

Select Committee on Stem Cell Research (2002)

Note there are some exceptions to this such as:

BBC Philharmonic Orchestra
BBC News

where the abbreviations or initials form part of the official name.

No author

If the author cannot be identified use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon' and the title of the work and date of publication. The title should be written in italics. Every effort should be made to establish the authorship if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission:

Marketing strategy (Anon., 1999)

No date

The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this:

Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated......

or indirectly:

Earlier research (Smith, n.d.) demonstrated that......

Every effort should be made to establish the year of publication if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

For further advice see Section 9 References with missing details

Page Numbers

Including the page numbers of a reference will help readers trace your sources. This is particularly important for quotations and for paraphrasing specific paragraphs in the texts:

Lawrence (1966, p.124) states "we should expect ..."

or indirectly:

This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124)...

Please note page numbers: preceded with p. for a single page and pp. for a range of pages.

Quoting portions of published text

If you want to include text from a published work in your essay then the sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks, and may be introduced by such phrases as:

the author states that "............"

or

the author writes that "............"

On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p.32) have stated...

"When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works..."

In order for a reader to trace the quoted section it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found. The quotation should also be emphasized (where it is 50 words or more) by indenting it and enclosed in quotation marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else:

"Outside the UK, the BBC World Service has provided services by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracts by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire Service in December 1932, and more recently by television and online. Though sharing some of the facilities of the domestic services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World Service has a separate Managing Director, and its operating costs have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the UK government. These grants were determined independently of the domestic licence fee. A recent spending review has announced plans for the funding for the world service to be drawn from the domestic licence fee". (Jones, 1967, p.27)

Secondary sources (second-hand references)

You may come across a summary of another author's work in the source you are reading, which you would like to make reference to in your own document; this is called secondary referencing.

A direct reference:

Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142) found that ...

In this example, Brown is the work which you wish to refer to, but have not read directly for yourself. Bassett is the secondary source, where you found the summary of Brown's work.

Or indirectly:

(Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)

It is important to realise that Bassett may have taken Brown's ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you need to cite a secondary reference it is recommended that, where possible, you read the original source for yourself rather than rely on someone else's interpretation of a work. For this reason it is best to avoid using secondary referencing.

The reference list at the end of your document should only contain works that you have read.

Tables and diagrams

When reproducing selected data, or copying an entire table or diagram, a reference must be made to the source. A reference within the text to a table taken from someone else's work, should include the author, date and page (Smith, 2005, p.33) to enable the reader to identify the data. If the source of the data is not the author's own, but obtained from another source, it becomes a secondary reference and needs to be cited as such:

(United Nations, 1975 cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)

If the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation below the table. Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of the document you are using. Full details should be included in the reference list. In the following example, a table is reproduced from page 267 of a book written by Robert Brown which is the 4th edition and published by FT Prentice Hall of Harlow, England in 2005. The title of the book is Management in the media: decision makers.

If you wish to reproduce the table in your own work,
  • replicate the whole table
  • add a citation below the table acknowledging where the table was found
e.g.

National Statistics Office 1985 cited in Brown, 2005, p.267


If you wish to quote from a table in your essay (treat as secondary referencing).

... historical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had televisions in England by the 1970s (National Statistics Office 1985 cited in Brown, 2005, p. 267).


Ensure you include details of the book in your reference list:

Brown, R., 2005. Management in the media: decision makers. 4th ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.

Websites

When citing material found on a website, you should identify the authorship of the website. This may be a corporate author, an organisation or a company; a guide to this can be found by looking at the URL or web address. To find the date of publication, reference to this might be found at the bottom of a web page relating to copyright, or from a date headline.

BBC Website Image

In this example the authorship would be BBC and the date 2009.

Recent research on meningitis (BBC, 2009) has shown ...

COMPILING THE REFERENCE LIST

General guidelines, layout and punctuation

The purpose of a reference list is to enable sources to be easily traced by another reader. Different types of publication require different amounts of information but there are certain common elements such as authorship, year of publication and title.

Section 9 deals with references where some of the details are unknown.

The Harvard style lays down standards for the order and content of information in the reference. Some variations of presentation are acceptable provided that they are used consistently.

All items should be listed alphabetically by author or authorship, regardless of the format, ie. whether books, websites or journal articles etc. Where there are several works from one author or source they should by listed together but in date order, with the earliest work listed first.

USING BOOKS, JOURNALS AND NEWSPAPERS

Books with one author

Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition.

The required elements for a book reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Reference
where 1st edition

Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

where 3rd edition
Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Organisations have been found to differ (Baron, 2008) when there is ...

Leading social scientists such as Redman (2006) have noted ...

Please note where there is likely to be confusion with UK place names; for USA towns include the State in abbreviated form e.g. Birmingham, AL.

Books with multiple authors

For books with multiple authors, all the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors.

The required elements for a reference are:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher.

Reference

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Leading organisations concerned with health (Adams, Weiss and Coatie, 2010) have proved that...

A new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional thinking...

Books which are edited

For books which are edited give the editor(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed. or eds..

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Keene, E. ed., 1988. Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990. The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Allouche, Jose. ed., 2006. Corporate social resposibility, Volume 1: concepts, accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chapters of edited books

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.

References

Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. 1980. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS. pp.44-68.

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Samson, 1970)

(Smith, 1975)

Multiple works by the same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date.

Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text

For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initals., Year followed by letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Works by the same author should be displayed in the order referenced in your assignment, earliest first (as above).

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Soros, 1966a)

(Soros, 1966b)

This also applies if there are several authors with the same surname. As an alternative their initials can be included in the citation.

So for example, if you have sources written by George Soros and also by Manuel Soros, you would list them in alphabetic order:

(Soros, G. 1966a)

(Soros, G. 1966b)

(Soros, M. 1966)


Where ther are several works by one author, published in different years, these should be arranged in chronological order, with the earliest date first

Books - translations/imprints/reprints

For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.

Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.

For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation:
Kant, I., 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Translated by T.K. Abbott., 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.

For works in an another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation. Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.

E-books and pdfs

E-books available through the University Library

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 May 2010].

Carlsen, J. and Charters, S., eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 9 June 2008].

For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

Cookson, J. and Church, S. eds., 2007. Leisure and the tourist. [e-book] Wallingford: ABS Publishers. Available at: Google Books <http://booksgoogle.com> [Accessed 9 June 2008].


For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle, or Nook

The required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book type] Place of publication (if available): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date].

Patterson, M. 2012. Lost places in dreams. [Kindle DX version] Transworld Media. Available at: Amazon.co.uk <http:// www.amazon.co.uk> [Accessed 9 June 2012].

If you include a quotation from an ebook without page numbers, use the section heading or chapter heading as a guide to locating your quotation, if available.

PDF documents

For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, Year. Title of documents. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date].

Bank of England, 2008. Inflation Report. [pdf] Bank of England. Available at: <http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/inflationreport/ir08nov.pdf> [Accessed 20 April 2009].

Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: <http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085307> [Accessed 9 June 2008].

Print journal articles

For journal articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.

Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today, Spring Issue, pp.647-85.

Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times, 97(22), pp.63-64.

Journal articles accessed through a database

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date]

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

An example of a Cochrane Review

Katchamart, W., Trudeau, J., Phumethum, V. and Bombardier, C., 2010. Methotrexate monotherapy versus methotrexate combination therapy with non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, [online] 4 (CD008495) Available at: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008495/abstract> [Accessed 6 August 2013].

An example of an early view article from the BMJ

Currie, G.P., Small, I. and Douglas, G., 2013. Long acting Β2 agonists in adult asthma. BMJ [e-journal] Early view article: Accepted 20 May 2013, Published 6 August 2013, BMJ2013 ;347:f4662. Available at:<http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f4662> [Accessed 8 August 2013].

Magazine or journal articles available on the internet

For an article from a web based magazine or journal, which is freely available over the web, the required elements for a reference are:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Magazine, [online] Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date].

Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan's new dawn. Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at:<http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2009].

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Kipper, 2008)...

Journal abstract from a database

For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Abstract only.
Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

Every effort should be made to read the article in full if you intend to use this work as supporting evidence in an academic submission.

Newspaper articles

For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.
The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

(In the page reference. p.4b - "4" indicates that the article is on the fourth page of the newspaper, columns of print on a page are labelled left to right alphabetically, so in this example "b" indicates that this is the second column of newsprint across the page from left to right.)

An example of corporate authorship where the newspaper article authorship is not stated.

Times, 2005. Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession (Editorial comments), The Times, 8 Sep. p.4b.

Online newspaper articles

For newspaper articles found in online newspapers, the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] additional date information. Available at: <url> [Accessed date].

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online]1 June. Available at: <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece>
[Accessed 17 March 2005].

Coney, J., 2009. Is this the start of a new home loan war HSBC vows to lend £1billion to homebuyers with 10% deposits. Daily Mail, [online] (Last updated 9.47 AM on 09th April 2009). Available at: <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1168461/Is-start-new-home-loan-war-HSBC-vows-lend-1billion-homebuyers-10-deposits.html>
[Accessed on 20 April 2009].


An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Chittenden, et al. 2003)

(Coney, 2009)


It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the first page of any web pages you use

USING OTHER SOURCE TYPES

Acts of Parliament

The required elements are:

Short title (with key words capitalized), which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Higher Education Act 2004. (c.8). London: HMSO.

For Acts prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included:

Road Transport Lighting Act 1957. (5&6 Eliz. 2, c.51). London: HMSO.

If you need to refer to a specific section and paragraph, include the section, paragraph number and subsection.

Finance Act 2007. s.45(9)(b).

Statutory Instruments

The required elements for a reference are:

Short title (with key words capitalized). Year. the abbreviation 'SI' followed by the year of publication and the SI number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995. 1995 SI 1995/1537. London: HMSO.

Official publications such as Command Papers

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship, which may be part of the title, Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Offically assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978. (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054). London: HMSO.

Select Committee on nationalised industries (1978-9), 1978. Consumers and the nationalised industries: prelegislative hearings (HC 334, 1978-9). London: HMSO.

House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee, 2012. The Work of the Border Force. (HC 523, Sixth Report of Session 2012-13) - Report, Together with Formal Minutes. London:TSO (The Stationery Office).

Law reports

It is recommended that you follow accepted legal citation, which is not part of the Harvard system. For this the required elements for a reference are:

Name of the parties involved in the law case, Year of reporting (in square brackets where there is no volume, or round brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.

Jones v Lipman [1962] 1 WLR 832.

Saidi v France (1994) 17 EHRR 251, p.245.

R v White (John Henry) [2005] EWCA Crim 689, 2005 WL 104528.

In the last example you should only quote the two law reports if you have used them.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

In the recent case of R v White (John Henry) (2005), the defence noted ...

Annual report

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year. Full title of annual report, Place of Publication: Publisher.

Marks & Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual report 2003-2004, London: Marks & Spencer.

For an e-version of an annual report. The required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page, [type of medium]
Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator)
[Accessed date]

Marks & Spencer, 2004. Annual report 2003-2004. [online]
Available at: <http://www-marks-and-spencer.co.uk/corporate/annual2003/>
[Accessed 4 June 2005].

It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the front page of any website you use containing reference details

Archive material

If you have used material from archives or special collections, the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Collection, Document number. Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.

Brown, P.S., 1915. An address to the Farmer. [manuscript] Holdbury Collection. 600. London: Holdbury Library.

An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Brown, 1915)

British Standards and International Standards

The required elements for a reference are:

Corporate author, Year of Publication. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard, Place of publication: Publisher.

British Standards Institution, 1990. BS 5555:1990 Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI.

International Standards Office, 1998. ISO 690 - 2 Information and documentation: Bibliographical references: Electronic documents. Geneva: ISO.


The required elements for an e-version are:

Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of Standard. Place of publication (if available): Publisher [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].


British Standards Institution, 2011. BS EN 594:2011 Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. British Standards Online [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Patents

The required elements for a reference are:

Inventor name, Initials., Assignee., Year. Title. Place. Patent number (status, if an application).

Example:

Graham, C.P., Fonti, L. and Martinez, A.M., American Sugar Co. 1972. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535.

Leonard, Y., Super Sports Limited. 2008. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Canada. Pat. 12,789,675.

Conference report and papers

The required elements for a conference report are:

Authorship, Year. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.


The required elements for a conference paper are:

Author, Initials., Year. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

Reports by organisations

The required elements for a reference are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. Place: Publisher:

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund.

The required elements for an e-version are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. [type of medium] Place: Publisher. Available at: include web address/URL [Accessed on date].

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: <http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf> [Accessed 12 September 2011].

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. [pdf] London: The King's Fund. Available at: <http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/nhs_decisionmaking.html> [Accessed 12 September 2011].

Dissertations and Theses

The required elements for a reference are:
Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University.

Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.


The required elements for an e-version are:

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University. Available at <url> [Accessed on date].

Fisher, C. W., 2008. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. DEd. University of Sheffield. Available at: <uk.bl.ethos.489114> [Accessed 30.07.2012].

European Union documents

Following EU conventions, examples of various EU documents are given below:

The required elements for a reference are:

The name of the Institution where the document originates (e.g. Commission) Form (eg Directive or Decision) Year/Legislation number/ Initials of Institution followed by the date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.

Council Directive 2001/29 /EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.

Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December 1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines destined for Denmark.

EU Regulation 1408/71
REGULATION (EEC) No 1408/71 OF THE COUNCIL of 14 June 1971 on the application of social security schemes to employed persons and their families moving within the Community.

Council Regulation (EEC) 1612/68[5] of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community.

Course material and Lecture notes

It is important to check with the lecturer who has given the lecture that they are in agreement with course material being included in any Reference List. If they are in agreement, and if it is not a publicly available document, it is important to provide a copy in the Appendix of your work. The citation to the course material in your Reference List should then also refer to the Appendix.

It would also be advisable to follow up any sources mentioned in your lecture and read these for yourself.

Course material / lecture notes - print version

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished.

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished.
(See appendix X)


An intext reference for the above example would read:

(Williams, 2008)

Course material - electronic

The required elements for a reference are:

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module Title [online via internal VLE], HE Institution. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address. [Accessed date].

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. [online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University Available at: <J:\AIBS\AIBS Admin\ASSESSMENT MATERIAL\ASSESSMENT MATERIAL 2009-10\IBS & MARKETING & MA ARTS\IBS Sem 2 2009-10 Approved Material\Sem 2> [Accessed Date 13 June 2008].

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Williams, 2008) ...

Quotations from written plays

When reviewing a number of different plays it is essential to cite the title of the plays. If reviewing one play (for example Twelfth Night) it is not necessary to repeat the title in your citations.

Published plays may contain line numbers, particularly in classic texts such as Shakespeare. If they exist it is good practice to include the line number, but Act and Scene numbers must always be included.

Classic plays are available in edited editions and the editor's name should be included with your reference.

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year (of the edition). Title of play. Editors, Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication: (this must be a town or city, not a country) Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. 1995. Twelfth Night. (World's Classics series) Warren, R. and Wells, T. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, "there is example for't; the Lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe" (Shakespeare, Twelfth Night II,v,36-7).

Interviews

Where you have conducted an interview - using a primary source. You are recommended to check with your Faculty Office for detailed guidance on what you may include.

Where you are conducting the interview, it is important to check with the person being interviewed that they will be in agreement with a transcript of the interview being made available. Since this will not be a publicly available document, it may be included as a transcript within an Appendix in your piece of work.

The citation for this interview should refer to the Appendix.

In an interview (Appendix A) the findings of the report were reviewed and White agreed with ...


In the Appendix you should include details such as:

Interviewee's name. Year of interview. Title of interview. Interviewed by ...name. [type of medium/format] Location and exact date of interview . Together with the transcript.

Where you are using an interview from a source such as a television programme

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Interviewee name, Initials., Year of Interview. Title of Interview. (or Interview on ..name of programme) Interviewed by ...name (first name and surname). [type of medium/format] Name of Channel, Date of transmission, time of transmission.

Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on Morning Ireland. Interviewed by... John Boyd [radio] RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30.


An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Ahern, 1999)

Press release

These may be print or electronic.

For a print press release:
Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. Press release, date.

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June 2009.

For an electronic press release:

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. [press release] date. Available at: web address [Accessed date].

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. [press release] 18 June 2009. Available at: <http://www.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/news/article/uk/rcn_praises_health_care_staff_as_infections_continue_to_fall> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Department of Health, 2011. Act F.A.S.T. campaign relaunched to save more lives. [press release] 28 February 2011. Available at: < http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/MediaCentre/Pressreleases/DH_124696> [Accessed 15 April 2012].

Religious texts

When you are quoting from a sacred text e.g. the Bible, the Torah or the Quran, the suggested elements for a citation are:

Name of religious text, Book. Sura or Chapter: Verse

An in-text reference for the Bible could look like this...

"In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (The Bible, Genesis. 1:1)


Convention dictates that you do not use page numbers with religious texts

The required elements for a full reference are:
Full title, Year. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bible: contemporary English version, 2000. London: Harper Collins.


For other sacred texts, it is important that you clearly identify the location of the text that you cite using the appropriate numbering system.

Reference from a dictionary

When you are quoting a definition from a dictionary, use the publisher as the author.

The required elements for a citation are:

(Publisher, Year)

(Chambers, 2010)

For the reference

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Dictionary publisher, Year. Full title of dictionary. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Chambers, 2010. Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Champers Harpers Publishers Ltd.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. [online] London: Encyclopedia Britannica (UK). Avaialble through: <encyclopaediabritannica.co.uk/intro> [Accessed 12 June 2011].

Data Sources

Where data it extracted from a data source such as Isurv or FAME, both the source with the year of currency for that data. should be acknowledge in an intext reference.
Complete details should be included in the reference list.

RICS ISurv, 2013. More new homes. [Building surveying > Pathology > Modern methods of construction > Meeting challenges with MMC] ISurv [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 21 May 2013].


Where you have gathered and manipulated data from a data source like FAME or OECD and placed this in a table of your own making, we recommend that you give the source and year of currency, for the data, as an the intext reference and include a note to an appendix. In the appendix you can reproduce the source tables you have used to create your table and include adequate details of how you generated the table you have used in your work.

Computer Program

For a computer program downloaded from the internet, the required elements of a references are:

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Title of program. (Version). [computer program] Distributor/Publisher. (if available) Available at: <web address/URL> [Accessed date]

Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2013. Adobe Air (3.8 beta). [computer program] Adobe Labs. Available at: <http://labs.adobe.com/technologies/flashruntimes/air/> [Accessed 30 August 2013].

USING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Websites

For websites found on the worldwide web the required elements for a reference are:

Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

If the URL appears to be exceedingly long, provide routing details which enable the reader to access the particular page via the site's homepage. You may be taken to a particular page as a result of a search you performed, or be directed from a link to another place on a website. The resultant URLs may include specific data about your method of accessing that page that is not available to your reader. If this is the case use the homepage (from which the reference can be found).

NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009].

It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use

Publications available from websites

For publications found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate social responsibility. [online] Boots Group Plc. Available at: <http://www.Boots-Plc.Com/Information/Info.Asp?Level1id=447&Level 2id=0> [Accessed 23 July 2005].

Defoe, D., 1999. The fortunes and the misfortunes of the famous Moll Flanders. [online] Champaign, Illinois: Project Gutenberg. Available at: <http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/370> [Accessed 18 November 2005].

Independent Inquiry into Access to Healthcare for People with Learning Disabilities, n.d. Healthcare for all. [online] Available at: <http://www.iahpld.org.uk/Healthcare_easy_final.pdf> [Accessed 10 April 2009].

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines, 2001. Hypertension in the elderly. (SIGN publication 20) [online] Edinburgh: SIGN (Published 2001) Available at: <http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign49.pdf> [Accessed 17 March 2005].


It is good practice to keep in your files a copy of the first page of any web pages you use

E-mail correspondence/discussion lists

Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these as they may include personal email addresses and be from a restricted source.
Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.


For email correspondence or discussion lists the suggested elements for a reference are:

Name of sender, email address, Year. Message or subject title from posting line. [type of medium] Recipient's name and (email address). Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL (e.g. details of where message is archived) [Accessed date].

Jones, P., jones@jones.com, 2005. Mobile phone developments. [email] Message to R G. Schmit (r.g.schmit@syy.ac.uk). Sent Monday 7 June 2005: 08:13. Available at: <http://gog.defer.com/2004_07_01_defer_archive.html> [Accessed 7 July 2005].

Copies of such correspondence should be kept, as these may need to be submitted as an appendix in an academic submission

Blogs

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Whitton, F., 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June. Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservation-extinction-open-ground> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Blog comments

The required elements for a reference are:

Comment Author, Year. Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

DGeezer, 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June, Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservation-extinction-open-ground> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Whitton, 2009)
(DGeezer, 2009)

Mailing list

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initial., Year. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. [online] date of message. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Murrey, T., 2009. Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students. [online] 23 June 2009. Available at: <http://www.internationalstudentforum.com> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Social Media

The required elements for a reference are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of page [Facebook]. Day/month post written. Available from:<URL>[ Accessed date].

Andrews, A., 2012. Customer Focus Group [Facebook]. 11 November . Available at:<www.facebook.com/andrews> [Accessed 11 November 2010].

Author, Initials., Year. Full text of tweet [Twitter]. Day/month tweet written. Available at: <URL> [Date accessed].

Big Red Corporation. 2013. New products for cars [Twitter]. 17 May Available at:<https://twitter .com/ bigredcorporation/promotions> [Accessed 13 November 2010].

IMAGES

DVD, video or film

The required elements for a reference are:

Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. [type of medium] Director. (if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details).

Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. 2005 [DVD] New York: Warner Brothers.

Health for all children 3: the video. 2004. [video] London: Child Growth Foundation. (Narrated by D.B.M. Hall).

For a film the suggested elements should include:

Title. Year of release. [Medium] Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Macbeth, 1948. [Film] Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures

Broadcasts

For a broadcast the suggested elements should include:

Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. [type of medium] Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.00.


For a broadcast obtained through Box of Broadcasts

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme recording] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20:00. Available through: Box of Broadcasts database [Accessed 12 August 2011].

Pictures, Images and Photographs

The suggested elements for a reference are:

Artist/Photographer's name (if known), Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).

Beaton, C., 1956. Marilyn Monroe. [photograph] (Marilyn Monroe’s own private collection).

Beaton, C., 1944. China 1944: A mother resting her head on her sick child's pillow in the Canadian Mission Hospital in Chengtu. [photograph] (London, Imperial War Museum Collection).


For an electronic reference the suggested elements are:

Artist/Photographer's name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source. [Accessed date].

Dean, R., 2008. Tales from Topographic Oceans. [electronic print] Available at: <http://rogerdean.com/store/product_info.php?cPath=4&products_id=88> [Accessed 18 June 2008].


Image taken from Bridgemean Education database


Peeters, C., ca. 164?. Still life of fish and lemons. (Bridgeman Education database) [image online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2013]

Electronic images

For images found on the internet the required elements for a reference are:

Author, Year (image created). Title of work. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Where the author is not known, begin the reference with the title of the work.

Where none of the usual details are known, (such as author, date, or image title) try to find the filename of the image (for example by right clicking and looking at the properties of the file). If none of the above is available begin the reference with the subject and title of the work.

[Child placing gauze over knee wound] n.d. [image online] Available at: < http://www.dadpal.com/2009/12/wounds-care-help-and-wound-vac-therapy.html> [Accessed 01 June 2010].

[Nimbus 1 returned sharp cloud cover photos, plus night time infra red pictures] n.d. [image online] Available at: <http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/dev/hillger/Nimbus-1_image.jpg> [Accessed 13 November 2008].

Pepsi, 2009. Pepsi can designs. [image online] Available at: [Accessed 19 June 2009].

Van Vechten, C. 1934. Man Ray. [photograph] Available at: [Accessed 04 October 2009].


An in text reference for the above examples would read:

(Child placing gauze, n.d.)
(Nimbus 1, n.d.)
(Pepsi, 2009)
(Van Vechten, 1934)

Maps - Print Maps, Digimap and Google Earth

The required elements for a reference are:

Map maker, Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey, 2006. Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.


The required elements for Digimap are:

Map publisher (origin), Year of publication. Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through Library website <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

Ordinance Survey, 2011. Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].


The suggested elements for Google Earth are:

Google Earth version (if applicable), Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Data set (if applicable) [online] Available through: URL [Accessed date].

Google Earth 6.0, 2008. Hylands House and Estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer. Available through:<http://www.google.com/earth/index.html> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Podcast and archived tv programme

The required elements for a reference are:

Broadcaster/Author, Year. Programme title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

National Gallery, 2008. Episode Seventeen (March 2008), The National Gallery Monthly Podcast. [podcast] March 2008. Available at: < http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/podcasts> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

YouTube video

The required elements for a reference are:

Screen name of contributor, Year. Video Title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Mrgeorged, 2009. Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. [video online] Available at: <http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=eTapK5dRaw4> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Defra, 2007. Sustainable development: the bigger picture. [video online] Available at: <http://youtu.be/keZmg56ahdM> [Accessed 23 June 2012].

An in text reference for the above example would read:

The principle research states "The need for substainable development..." (Defra 2007)

MUSIC SOURCES

Sound Recordings: General

The general required elements for a sound recording are:

Name, Initials(s) (of originator/composer), Year. Title. [medium] Name of recording artist/performer/conductor. Place of distribution: Record Label.

Tippett, M., 1993.Symphony no.4 . [Sound recording] Performed by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra conducted by Richard Hickox. Colchester: Chandos Records.

Gallagher, N. 1994. Live forever. Recorded by Oasis. Definitely maybe. [CD]. Manchester: Creation Records.

An intext reference for the above examples would read:

(Tippett,1993)

(Gallagher,1994)

Sleeve Notes

The required elements for a sleeve note are:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of sleeve notes. In: Title of recording [sleeve notes] Place of Distribution: Distribution company.

Crowe, C., 1990. Led Zeppelin/Light and Shade. In: Mothership [sleeve notes] New York: Sterling Sound.

Scores

The required elements for a score are:

Name, Initials., (of originator/composer). Year of publication. Title of score. Notes. Place of publication: Publisher.

Britten, B., 1980. Eight folk songs arrangements for high voice and harp. [score] ed. O. Ellis. London: Faber Music.

Lyrics

The required elements for lyrics are:

Author, Initials., year. Title of lyrics. [lyrics] Place of distribution: distribution company.

Horovitz, A., Yauch, A., Diamond, M. and Rubin, R., 1986. No sleep till Brooklyn. [lyric] Santa Monica: Universal Music.

CDs

The required elements for a CDs are:

Artist, year. Title of recording.[CD] Place of distribution: Record label.

Oasis, 1994. Definitely maybe. [CD] Manchester: Creation Records.

Vinyl

The required elements for a vinyl are:

Artist, year. Title of recording.[CD] Place of distribution: Record label..

Oasis, 1994. Definitely maybe. [CD] Manchester: Creation Records.

Downloads

The required elements for a download are:

Artist, year. Title of recording.[Download] Available at: [Accessed date]

Pavarotti, L., 2005. Nessun Dorma, [Download]. Available at: < http://www.apple.com/itunes/download/?id=366639665> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

Song on a compilation album

The required elements for a compilation album are:

Artist, Year. Title of song. In: Artist, Year if different, Title of recording [medium] Place of Distribution: Record Label. Track Number

Veloso, C., 2010. Lost in Paradise. In: Various artists, Tropicalia: A Brasilian Revolution In Sound, [CD]. London: Soul Jazz Records. Track 19.

Complete album

The required elements for a complete album are:

Name of recording artist. Year. Title of album. [Medium]. Place of distribution: Record Label

Oasis, 1994. Definitely maybe. [CD]. Manchester: Creation Records.

Live performance of music

The required elements for a live performance are:

Name, Initial(s) (of originator/composer). Year of performance. Title. [Live performance] Name of performing artist. [Location,Date seen].

Black, F., 2010. Where is my mind?. [Live performance] Performed by the Pixies. [Parc del Forum, Barcelona. 28 May].

UNPUBLISHED WORKS

Unpublished works

You may occasionally have access to a document before it is published and may therefore not be able to provide full details:

Pattison, J., (in press) A new book that I have written. London: Vanity Press.

Woolley, E. and Muncey, T., (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. (Accepted for publication December 2002).

Informal or in-house publications

For informal publications, such as class handouts and leaflets, provide what details you can:

Anglia Ruskin University, 2007. Using the Cochrane Library. [leaflet] August 2007 ed. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University.

Personal communication

Where you refer to a more informal personal communication, e.g. letter, email, phone call or conversation, provide as much detail as possible and note the nature of the communication.

Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference.

Hindle, E., 2000. Introducing Cow & Gate Omneo Comfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort. [letter] (Personal communication, 2 June 2000).

O'Sullivan, S., 2003. Discussion on citation and referencing. [letter] (Personal communication, 5 June 2003).

REFERENCES WITH MISSING DETAILS

References with missing details

Where there is no obvious publication date, check the content and references to work out the earliest likely date, for example:

1995?probable year
ca. 1995approximately 1995
199-decade certain but not year
199?probable decade


Occasionally it may not be possible to identify an author, place or publisher. This applies particularly to what is known as 'grey literature', such as some government documents, leaflets and other less official material.

Anonauthor anonymous or not identifiable
s.l.no place of publication (Latin: sine loco)
s.n.no named publisher (Latin: sine nomine)
n.d.no date


Information such as place and publisher not found on the document, but traced from other sources, should be placed in square brackets.

You should, however be very cautious about using as supporting evidence material where you cannot identify the author, date or source.